Every terminal handles and stores a variety of products, ranging from petroleum products,
chemicals and gases to oleochemicals. This chapter focuses on the characteristics of the
products and the implications for packaging, storage and handling.
Chapter one also provides an overview of some basic chemistry and chemical properties,
The different types of classification system and where additional information can be found.
Chapter 02 - Storage Tanks and Equipment
This chapter provides an overview of the minimum requirements for tanks. Products will have different physical and chemical
characteristics and local regulations will usually specify the minimum requirements with regard to tank design and storage for each type.
Chapter 03 - Product Transfer Equipment
The equipment will depend on the facility’s design, the characteristics of the products being handled and the existing infrastructure.
Terminals are made up from a large assortment of equipment and systems so that they can be used for storing, transferring and handling a
wide range of bulk liquid materials. Regulatory requirements will also affect the type of equipment which is used.
Chapter 04 - Vapour and Emission Control
This chapter provides an overview of the issues related to reducing and controlling vapour emissions and managing the air quality at a
typical terminal. The type of vapour handling and control systems used will depend on the type of products being handled, tank design,
type of transport being used, transfer equipment and infrastructure and local regulatory requirements
Chapter 05 - Jetty and Shipping
This chapter provides an overview of a terminal jetty’s typical requirementsincluding the infrastructure, equipment and procedures.
Jetties vary substantially in their design and operational characteristics, depending on who owns the jetty and its infrastructure and
what the intended uses are.. Many requirements will be determined by the specific conditions and regulations of the local site, although
they must also comply with the internationally accepted standards and codes of practice.
Chapter 06 - Road and Rail
This chapter studies the infrastructure and facilities required to load and unload rail tankers, tank containers and rail tank cars.
The exact structure and available facilities at a terminal will vary with the facility’s layout, design, product characteristics, type of
transport, throughput and local regulatory requirements and constraints. Also discussed in this chapter are the main issues associated with
loading and unloading, station construction, infrastructure, equipment and the personal responsibilities of the drivers.
Chapter 07 - Drumming and Warehousing
Drumming operations, handling, storing and dispatching dangerous goods which have been packaged at a
terminal are discussed in this chapter. It is often the case that customers classify and provide the
packaging and labels for products that are to be loaded into drums or IBCs. As the terminal is the
packer and consignor of the dangerous goods they are liable for certain regulatory aspects. It is
important that personnel who are involved in filling the containers have an understanding of the
classification, documentation, packaging, labelling and placarding requirements for transporting
General operational safety, health and environmental issues are included in this chapter,
although they will vary depending on the facilities location, the products which are being
handled as well as the local regulations and standards.
Chapter 08 - Hazardous Area Classification
A customer’s requirements and market demand will frequently lead to changes how the operation
is conducted. A site hazardous area classification system must meet the risk elimination or
mitigation criteria while taking account of these continual changes.
This chapter provides an overview of the subject, as well as an understanding of the requirements
and dynamics that are involved.
Chapter 09 - Fire Safety
This chapter provides an overview of the requirements for the prevention, detection, protection
and response to fires. The type of equipment, the protection systems and procedures used are mostly
based on local regulations, internationally accepted standards or codes of practice, as well as the
type of products which are being handled and the facility’s design and operational characteristics.
This chapter outlines the current and generally accepted requirements and best practices for design,
control and management of equipment, systems and procedures that cover fire safety at a typical terminal.
Chapter 10 - Buildings
This chapter looks at the typical types of buildings found on a terminal, identifies the issues
relating to their location and use and provides an overview of the associated hazards, suggesting
ways of managing the risk.
While this chapter is concerned mainly with existing buildings, the information which is provided
may also be useful in the design and location of new buildings.
Chapter 11 - Solid and Liquid Waste
Every terminal must identify, monitor and control its waste streams as part of their
overall waste and terminal management policies and procedures. There must also be an
infrastructure in place that adequately contains, treats and safely recycles or disposes
of any waste material which is generated. The level of control, treatment or disposal
will depend on the terminal’s location, environmental conditions, facility design, the
equipment used, products that are being handled and any local or international
regulations or requirements.
Chapter 12 - Electrical and Power Distribution
This chapter looks at the main types and some of the issues relating to the safe installation,
operation and maintenance of electrical networks and associated equipment.
Chapter 13 - Traffic Circulation and Control
At any time there will be a variety of vehicles and other traffic at a terminal.
To ensure that all the operations which involve vehicles and other traffic are conducted
in a safe manner it is important there is adequate site control, such as road layout and marking,
suitable signage and systems, procedures and training. While the requirements may differ between
terminals due to local circumstances and conditions, effective site traffic circulation and
control systems should address all issues related to road, rail and pedestrian traffic.
Chapter 14 - Personnel Safety
The chemicals handled at a terminal often have hazardous characteristics, so personnel working at or
visiting a terminal may be exposed to varying degrees of personal risk. It is important that the
terminal ensures the safety of those working on or those affected by the terminal’s operations are
aware of the potential risks and there must be management systems in place that will eliminate or
While any of the potential risks are terminal specific, this chapter provides an overview of the
systems required to effectively Manage them.
Chapter 15 - Emergency Response
While emergency plans will depend largely on factors such as local legislation and regulatory requirements,
equipment and infrastructure, product characteristics and local conditions, this chapter provides an
overview of the typical requirements and guidelines that should be found in a typical emergency management
Chapter 16 - Security
Terminals are responsible for the security of the large quantities of dangerous and high value
products they handle. They are also responsible for the terminal’s infrastructure, operations
and for personnel working at or visiting the facility. The security measures will vary depending
on factors including the terminal’s location, local conditions, legislation, regulations, the
products being handled and the type of operation that is being carried out.
The security arrangements must cover all areas directly controlled by the terminal, including
any offsite equipment or infrastructure such as pipelines and jetties. Some terminals are situated
in an industrial complex and have a shared infrastructure and security resources, although in
these cases the terminal remains responsible for the security resources and must ensure that the
shared resources and procedures are integrated into their site security policies and plans.
This chapter provides an overview of the security risks and requirements associated with typical terminal
operations, taking into account the international standards, guidelines and requirements.
Chapter 17 - Management of the Terminal
All terminals will have policies and procedures that are driven by a number of influences, both internal and external.
Influences will include:
• Local legislation and regulation
• international standards and codes of practice
• corporate requirements
• industry requirements
• customer requirements
The terminal location, design and operational characteristics will determine the specific areas that will need policies or systems to ensure compliance.
This chapter provides an overview of what must be included in a terminal management system in support of these requirements.
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